Political Structure

In September 1968, Francisco Macias Nguema was elected the first president of Equatorial Guinea and independence followed in October 1968. In July 1970, Macias created a single-party state and by May 1971, and in 1972 Macias took complete control of the government and assumed the title of President-for-Life.

In August 1979, Macias' nephew Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, led a successful coup d’état; Macias was arrested, tried, and executed. Mr. Obiang assumed the Presidency in October 1979. Obiang initially ruled Equatorial Guinea with the assistance of a Supreme Military Council. A new constitution, drafted in 1982 with the help of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, came into effect after a popular vote on August 15, 1982. The Council was then abolished and Mr. Obiang remained in the presidency for a 7-year term. He was re-elected in 1989 and in February 1996. Subsequently, Mr. Obiang named a new cabinet, which included some opposition figures in minor portfolios. The opposition had few electoral successes in the 1990s. By early 2000, President Obiang’s PDGE (Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea) party dominated government at all levels. In December 2002, President Obiang won a new seven-year mandate with 97% of the vote. A constitutional referendum held in 2011 established a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate, which has 70 members of whom 55 are directly elected and 15 are appointed by the President; and, the House of People's Representatives or Camara de los Diputdos or Chamber of Deputies, which has 100 members, all of whom are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms. In the last elections held on 26 May 2013, the ruling PDGE party won as many as 54 of the 55 elected seats to the Senate and 99 of the 100 seats to the chamber of deputies, leaving only one seat each to the opposition (CPDS Party). The country went to the polls for legislative, senate and municipal elections of November 12, 2017. The ruling Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea (PDGE) maintained its firm grip on power wiining 99 of the parliament’s 100 seats, while the main opposition party, Citizens for Innovation, won one seat. President Obiang has appointed a new Prime Minister and three Vice Prime Ministers besides the council of Ministers.